Coptic Mark 16:1-9 (Short Varient)

Mark 16

1ⲁⲩⲱ ⲛ̅ⲧⲉⲣⲉⲡⲥⲁⲃⲃⲁⲧⲟⲛ ⲟⲩⲉⲓⲛⲉ ⲙⲁⲣⲓⲁ ⲧⲙⲁⲅⲇⲁⲗⲏⲛⲏ ⲁⲩⲱ ⲙⲁⲣⲓⲁ ⲧⲁⲓ̈ⲁⲕⲱⲃⲟⲥ ⲙⲛ̅ⲥⲁⲗⲱⲙⲏ ⲁⲩϣⲉⲡϩⲉⲛϩⲏⲛⲉ ϫⲉⲕⲁⲁⲥ ⲉⲩⲉⲉ͡ⲓ ⲛ̅ⲥⲉⲧⲁϩⲥϥ̅

2ⲁⲩⲱ ϩⲧⲟⲟⲩ ⲉⲙⲁⲧⲉ ⲙ̅ⲡⲟⲩⲁ ⲛⲛ̅ⲥⲁⲃⲃⲁⲧⲟⲛ ⲁⲩⲉ͡ⲓ ⲉϩⲣⲁⲓ̈ ⲉⲡⲉⲙϩⲁⲟⲩ ⲉⲁⲡⲣⲏ ϣⲁ.

3ⲁⲩⲱ ⲛⲉⲩϫⲱ ⲙ̅ⲙⲟⲥ ⲛ̅ⲛⲉⲩⲉⲣⲏⲩ ϫⲉ ⲛⲓⲙ ⲡⲉⲧⲛⲁϥⲓⲡⲱⲛⲉ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲓⲣⲱϥ ⲙ̅ⲡⲉⲙϩⲁⲟⲩ.

4ⲛ̅ⲧⲉⲣⲟⲩϥⲓⲁⲧⲟⲩ ⲇⲉ ⲉϩⲣⲁⲓ̈ ⲁⲩⲛⲁⲩ ⲉⲡⲱⲛⲉ ⲉⲁⲩϥⲓⲧϥ̅ ⲙ̅ⲙⲁⲩ ⲛⲉⲩⲛⲟϭ ⲅⲁⲣ ⲡⲉ ⲉⲙⲁⲧⲉ.

5ⲁⲩⲱ ⲛ̅ⲧⲉⲣⲟⲩⲃⲱⲕ ⲉϩⲟⲩⲛ ⲉⲡⲉⲙϩⲁⲟⲩ ⲁⲩⲛⲁⲩ ⲉⲩϩⲣ̅ϣⲓⲣⲉ ⲉϥϩⲙⲟⲟⲥ ⲉϩⲣⲁⲓ̈ ⲛ̅ⲥⲁⲟⲩⲛⲁⲙ ⲙ̅ⲙⲟϥ ⲉϥϭⲟⲟⲗⲉ ⲛ̅ⲟⲩⲥⲧⲟⲗⲏ ⲛ̅ⲟⲩⲱⲃϣ̅. ⲁⲩⲱ ⲁⲑⲟⲧⲉ ϫⲓⲧⲟⲩ.

6ⲛ̅ⲧⲟϥ ⲇⲉ ⲁϥϣⲁϫⲉ ⲛⲙ̅ⲙⲁⲩ ϫⲉ ⲙ̅ⲡⲣ̅ⲣ̅ϩⲟⲧⲉ ⲉⲧⲉⲧⲛ̅ⲕⲱⲧⲉ ⲛ̅ⲥⲁⲓ̅ⲥ̅ ⲡⲛⲁⲍⲁⲣⲏⲛⲟⲥ ⲡⲉⲛⲧⲁⲩⲥxⲟⲩ ⲙ̅ⲙⲟϥ ⲁϥⲧⲱⲟⲩⲛϥ̅ ⲛϥ̅ϩⲙ̅ⲡⲉⲓ̈ⲙⲁ ⲁⲛ. ⲁⲛⲁⲩ ⲉⲡⲙⲁ ⲛ̅ⲧⲁⲩⲕⲁⲁϥ ⲛ̅ϩⲏⲧϥ̅

7ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲃⲱⲕ ⲛ̅ⲧⲉⲧⲛ̅ϫⲟⲟⲥ ⲛ̅ⲛⲉϥⲙⲁⲑⲏⲧⲏⲥ ⲙⲛ̅ⲡⲕⲉⲡⲉⲧⲣⲟⲥ ϫⲉ ϥⲛⲁⲣ̅ϣⲟⲣⲡ̅ ⲉⲣⲱⲧⲛ̅ ⲉⲧⲅⲁⲗⲓⲗⲁⲓⲁ. ⲉⲧⲉⲧⲛ̅ⲛⲁⲛⲁⲩ ⲉⲣⲟϥ ⲙ̅ⲡⲙⲁ ⲉⲧⲙ̅ⲙⲁⲩ. ⲕⲁⲧⲁⲑⲉ ⲛ̅ⲧⲁϥϫⲟⲟⲥ ⲛⲏⲧⲛ̅.

8ⲁⲩⲱ ⲛ̅ⲧⲉⲣⲟⲩⲉ͡ⲓ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲙ̅ⲡⲉⲙϩⲁⲟⲩ ⲁⲩⲡⲱⲧ ⲛⲉⲣⲉⲟⲩϩⲟⲧⲉ ⲅⲁⲣ ⲛⲙ̅ⲙⲁⲩ. ⲁⲩⲱ ⲛⲉⲩⲣ̅ϣⲡⲏⲣⲉ ⲙ̅ⲡⲟⲩϫⲉⲗⲁⲁⲩ ⲇⲉ ⲛ̅ϣⲁϫⲉ ⲉⲗⲁⲁⲩ ⲛⲉⲩⲣ̅ϩⲟⲧⲉ ⲅⲁⲣ·
ⲡⲉⲩⲁⲅⲅⲉⲗⲓⲟⲛ ⲛⲕⲁⲧⲁⲙⲁⲣⲕⲟⲥ.

Variable Essay Structure

mplementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
Volume 39, May 2020, 101165
Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment of COVID-19
Author links open overlay panelJiaXuYunfeiZhang
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A new kind of Pneumonia caused by new corona virus has been widespread in China since winter of 2019. No effective treatment for this disease was verified, so the morbidity and mortality rate were supposed higher than flu. The Traditional Chinese Medicine is widely used in clinical practice in China, but many other countries of the world to deal with diseases that remain clinically challenging.

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PneumoniaCOVID-19Traditional Chinese medicine
This new viral pneumonia was named COVID-19, and declared as Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization (WHO) on January 30, 2020. When the COVID-19 broke out, tens of thousands of Chinese people were infected, especially in Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei Province [1], where the infection rate was extremely high. At present, the cumulative number of diagnoses worldwide is 645,957. Chinese government made relevant decisions quickly to control the spread of the epidemic disease. For example, on January 20, 2020, Chinese government classified COVID-19 as a Class B infectious disease and treated it as Class A [2].

Supportive therapies are mainly used in clinical practice, such as oxygen therapy, antiviral therapy and corticosteroid therapy, because there is no specific effective treatment [3]. According to past experiences in the treatment of infectious diseases in China, Traditional Chinese Medicine, including herbal formulas, can be used to prevent and treat such infectious disease [4,5]. Therefore, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is widely used in the treatment of COVID-19 in China promptly. Here we introduce the herbal formulas that are commonly used in Chinese hospitals.

1. Prevention
According to clinical manifestations of patients who infected with COVID-19, it can be classified as “wet, heat, congestion”, in their lungs. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, we believe that lungs are delicate, so the disease first affects lungs’ function.

“Wet” refers to the factor with sticky and heavy turbidity that can cause a long course of disease and damage the function of the body. “Hot” refers to the factor with hot, dry, and rising turbidity that can cause disease. “Congestion” is a causative factor that can congest blood circulation and cause symptoms such as pain.

Traditional Chinese medicine believes that Qi is the basic substance that constitutes the human body and maintains basic functions. We divide Qi into the healthy Qi and the pathogenic Qi. The healthy Qi refers to substances that maintain the normal operation of our body. The pathogenic Qi refers to substances that can harm the health of our body.

Therefore, the aim of preventive treatment of TCM is to protect lungs. Yupingfeng San, a kind of preventative patent medicine, is chosen because of the nature of the lungs' diseases, listed in Table 1. Yupingfeng San is an ancient herbal medicine in TCM and used to protect lung Qi and avoid pathogenic Qi. In this medicine, there are three herbs: Astragalus, Fangfeng and Atractylodes. Astragalus can improve lung Qi and can reduce phlegm. Fangfeng can relieve the pathogenic Qi, remove dampness and relieve pain. Atractylodes enhances the spleen Qi, which can affect our digestion and absorption. Previous studies has shown that Yupingfeng San could regulate the body's immune function.

Table 1. Herb prescriptions of Yupingfeng San.

Yupingfeng San Astragalus 20g Fangfeng 15g Atractylodes 15g
These medicinal herbs should be mixed and boiled together with 1000ml pure water for about 15 minutes after boiling to get about 600ml tincture. Each tincture may be subdivided into three doses and taken orally 200ml once, three times a day.

2. Treatment of mild infection
Patients with mild infection often has fever, sweat, headache, thirst, cough, sore throat, red tongue tip, thin white or pale yellow coating and floating pulse. We base on above symptoms to diagnose if a patient is a mild one. According to theories of Traditional Chinese Medical, pathogenic Qi hurts lung Qi. If the lung Qi does not work properly, it will cause lung heat and dampness and some typical symptoms, including fever, cough, sore throat and fatigue. So we used the method of “clearing lung heat and dampness” to treat it. Two types of prescriptions, called Sangju yin and Yinqiao san, are commonly used in clinical treatment, and are shown in Table 2. The main function of these two prescriptions is to clear lung heat, expel phlegm, relieve cough, regulate the patient's lungs and restore normal lung function. Clinically, we chose Yinqiao san for patients who had high fever and Sangju yin for patients who had severe cough.

Table 2. Two types of prescriptions for mild patients.

Sangju yin Mulberry leaf 15g Chrysanthemum 10g Forsythia 10g Almond 9g
Mint 6g Chinese bellflower 6g Reed root 15g Licorice 3g
Yinqiao san Forsythia 15g Chinese bellflower 6g Honeysuckle 15g Mint 6g
Bamboo leaves 6g Licorice 3g Nepeta 6g Light tempeh 5g
Burdock 6g
These medicinal herbs should be mixed and boiled together with 1000ml pure water for about 15 minutes after boiling to get about 600ml tincture. Each tincture may be subdivided into three doses and taken 200ml orally once, three times a day.

From some studies, we found that Yinqiao san may have antibacterial and antiviral functions, and can be used to enhance the immune function of upper respiratory tract [6]. These two prescriptions can be used to treat patients with mild infection of COVID-19.

3. Treatment of severe infection
In the early course of treatment for COVID-19, if the infection cannot be controlled, worse respiratory failure, multiple organ failure, and death will occur, then serious infection should be considered. These infectious patients have following main manifestations: high fever, cough, phlegm, difficult breathing, sweating, chest tightness, fatigue, nausea, bloating, red or dark red tongue, yellow coating and slippery or weak pulse. We base on the above symptoms to diagnose if patients are severe ones.

According to TCM, if early treatments are not effective, patients are improperly treated, or the pathogenic Qi is too strong, the healthy Qi (especially the lung Qi) will be damaged severely and lungs will not work. Therefore, more and more sputum will be produced and patients cannot breathe anymore. Maxingshigan tang(decoction) and Baihegujin tang are shown in Table 3 and could be used to benefit the healthy Qi, expel the pathogenic Qi and help the lung to expel sputum and get air.

Table 3. Two types of herb prescriptions for severe patients.

Maxinshigan Tang Ephedra 15g Almond 10g Plaster 20g Licorice 9g
Baihegujin Tang Shudihuang 15g Dihuang 15g Angelica 15g White peony 6g
Xuanshen 10g Chinese bellflower 6g Ophiopogon 6g Lily 6g
Beimu 6g Licorice 3g
These medicinal herbs should be boiled together with 1000ml pure water for about 30 minutes after boiling to get about 600ml tincture. Each tincture may be subdivided into three doses and taken orally 200ml once, three times a day.

Maxinshigan tang is mainly used to clear lung fever and reduce phlegm. Baihegujin tang can invigorate the lung Qi. We should mix the two prescriptions together when severe infection happens to benefit the healthy Qi and expel the pathogenic Qi.

4. Discussion
In 2003, a lot of descriptions of Traditional Chinese Medicine were used to prevent and treat SARS([7,8]). In 2009, National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine of China issued a Traditional Chinese Medicine program for treatment of H1N1 infection [9]. Based on these experiences, we believe that Traditional Chinese Medicine is effective for COVID-19, so we use it during the outbreak of COVID-19, and it works very well clinically.

There is no effective treatment for COVID-19 until now. However, during the treatment of Covid-19 in China, we found that the intervention of traditional Chinese medicine can reduce the severe symptoms of patients. The empirical therapy of Traditional Chinese Medicine is been widely used in Chinese hospitals now, and this therapy might be useful for people all around the world.

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What is the Significance of Being a Christian Now?

by Mark E. Mountjoy


Introductory Remarks

What is the Atavist Goal? The short essay below is intended to pave the way for a fuller understanding of what Atavism is and how it proposes to investigate and address ultimate questions, big questions and the small details that make up those questions. In other words, we seek to understand the Macrososm and the Micrcocosm--the forest AND the trees. The Atavist interpretation is interested in questions of what is Biblical and original to the Christian faith--not redefinitions, novelties and private theories.

(1) It is interested in salvation and redemptive promises and the manner and timing of Bible prophecies being fulfilled in the last days of the Second Jewish Commonwealth.  How does that awareness effect and embue meaningfulness in what it is to be a Christian now?.

(3) It is interested in a solid, reliable historic calendar and dependable timetables. The passage of just four kingdoms was expected starting at the time of Nebuchadnezzar's conquests six hundred years before Christ.

(4) Fulfillment and historical corrollaries: what three kingdoms followed Babylon in the Jewish history timeline?

(5) What kingdom was the fourth and what prize did it forefeit?

(6) What is the meaning of the Inheritance? Reading the New Testament, how did Jesus and the Apostles seem to understand it? This interpretive school is not interested in new definitions, or redefinitions, but restoration, throwback, a return to the original concepts. Observations tell us that the historic church has understood the destruction confusedly. They cannot really answer if anything come to pass in the initial Destruction of Jerusalem or SHALL it come to pass in an Ultimate destruction of the universe? Importantly, is the initial destruction of the great city (expected to be soon) the SAME as the Ultimate destruction of the universe (that is still expected to come)? For almost twenty centuries the Christian church has waivered or refused to answer this question, but is this reluctance correct?

(7) If it is the case that everything happened that should have happened, (or partially or nothing happened) what do we have in the here and now? In any case, What can we legitimately expect? Do we have destiny and hope? Where are we going? Can we expect anything in the hereafter? What?

(8) Purpose: While we live what is our mission, our task, our vocation? Is there a necessity for worship, leadership, ministry, service, roles and goals? Is there a need to be an example (in real time) of the horizontal and vertical teachings and commitments of the New Testament? Is there a need to see the New Testament as a contractual agreement incumbant upon all true Christians? How, then, should we live? Do we do nothing? It asks, What happens to our inner man because of who Jesus is (not what happened on a date in the late Second Jewish Commonwealth)? Since Jesus said, "I am the resurrection and the life" what does that singular proclamation tell us? What does gathering unto him mean and how do we do it? What does trusting in him mean and how do we do it? Do we do what we want to do, or do we carry out worship and ministries and services more or less like other Christians have historically done?

(9)We have to also ask, What longterm advantages does New Testament faith offer the lost and what are the stipulations surrounding it? Do Christians [today] have any responsibilities related to unregenerate and unsaved mankind?

(10) Because the Book of Revelation is the final book in the New Testament, and because it frames eschatology promises as matters that were then soon to come to pass, we come again to the question of interpretation: How did the earliest Christians understand the Jewish State, the Temple and its ministries and services? How did they understand and perceive the kingdom of God and the Church? What did they anticipate in connection with the return of the Lord and prophecy?

Finally, (11) A look at traditions (what Christians have said; what Christians have understood) both about the written AND oral issues, is there any latitude for disagreement on dogmatic issues of consensus? Is there any room to disagree on rulings that have no direct relationship with early Christian beliefs, hopes and aspirations?

Reflection and analysis and reassessment of these critical issues will help us shape our converstations and discussions and move forward towards real progress.

*Charts below:

[1] The Atavist understanding rejects the conventional roster of the four kingdoms, differing only (and significantly) with who the fourth kingdom was.

[2] The Atavist understanding also regards Daniel chapter 7 as having a fundamental relationship with Nebuchadnezzar's dream, and where the Stone strikes the toes, the Ancient of Days takes away the dominion of the fourth beast and gives it to the people of the saints of the Most High (the Son of man).

[3] Atavists reject the Preterist notion of a forty year generation and see secondary events happening in Masada, the Judaea Capta Period, the Kitos Wars and the rise and fall of Simon Bar Kokhba and the second century triumph of Christianity as absolutely essential to understanding Bible prophecy and the present reality of the Church and kingdom of God. Without these descendant events nothing after Revelation 19:4 through Revelation 20:1-15 can be understood in a sensical or explainable way.

[4] Finally, figure 4 shows that the Christian church, though enjoying stellar success, is very far from any one view that even remotely resembles what the early Christians believed or expected. Also, the Four Views and abdication do not intersect with any Jewish salvation history, nor do they align themselves with any historical corollaries that would boost belief in the New Testament's apocalyptic inspiration. Instead, they easily become a means to suppress inquiry, study and discussion and handicap and hamper genuine efforts to improve Christian self-understanding.